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What is urine?

 

Urine is liquid waste filtered from the blood and excreted by the kidneys. About 95% of urine is water; the rest consists of byproducts of metabolism, such as urea, along with small amounts of excess salts, hormones, vitamins, and other substances.

What makes it yellow?

 

Urine's colour comes from a pigment called urochrome (from the breakdown of red blood cells) and ranges from pale yellow to amber. As a general rule, the lighter it is, the better. Darker urine is a sign of dehydration. A good rule is to drink enough fluids to keep your urine almost colourless.  It's important to note as well that supplements, drugs, and even food can change the colour of your urine. Illness can also change it's colour, and you should see a doctor if your urine is pink, red, or brown for unknown reasons. This could be a sign of an infection, kidney stone, liver problems, or more rarely, bladder cancer.  

What makes it cloudy?

 

Cloudy urine is usually of no concern. It can be caused by normal secretions or by phosphate crystals that form if you've had a lot of milk or other high-phosphate foods. However, if your urine is persistently cloudy or accompanied by other symptoms - such as burning upon urination, frequent urination or fever - it could be a sign of bacterial infection or other condition, and it would be beneficial to visit a doctor.

What gives urine it's odor?

 

Urea, ammonia and other chemicals excreted by the kidneys give urine an odor. However, if you are well hydrated and healthy, there should be little or no odor. Darker-yellow urine, because it is more concentrated, smells stronger. Some medical conditions such as diabetes can change urine's odor, making it smell sweet. Penicillin also gives urine a distinctive smell. And of course, some foods (most notably asparagus) can change the scent of your urine.

 

What does a urine test reveal?

 

A dipstick urinalysis checks for sugar (a possible sign of diabetes), protein (which can indicate kidney disease), white blood cells (possibly due to urinary tract infection) and blood. It also tests for specific gravity (concentration) and pH (acidity/alkalinity) of the urine. In addition, urine tests can reveal many other things, including pregnancy and liver disease.

Does urine have healing properties?

 

While there's no evidence that "urine therapy" has benefits, urine has been ingested to treat a variety of issues from heartburn to measles, and been applied to the chest and gargled in the throat to treat bronchial infections and throat infections, respectively. It has even been applied to wounds. While it's a popular belief that applying urine to jellyfish stings can help, this is incorrect, and in fact urine may cause the remaining stingers to fire more. It is important to note that drinking urine may cause nausea, vomiting, headache, palpitations, diarrhea, and fever.